You want to know more about air? Why don’t you just go breath some? What other kinds air are there in the world? You got some inside you? You got some outside you?
In less ancient days, Carl Jung stood out in his mainstream application of elemental theory. His four functional types (thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition) are taken directly from ancient ideas surrounding the elements. As such, it’s easy to for us to draw parallels between Jung and other applications with the same root. Examples include Paracelsus and the tarot cards.
For discussions on Jung and his studies related to alchemy and gnosticism, I recommend taking a peek at his written works. Stephan A. Hoeller does a fantastic job outlining these in his essays and online lecture series. Jung, being all about psychology, skewed alchemy toward this end, but his work stands out as both a successful modern application of alchemical theory, and a huge step towards re-merging these religious and spiritual philosophies with socially acceptable science.